gel-1


gel-1
    gel-1
    English meaning: “to curl; round, *gland, growth, ball, fathom, arm”
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “ballen, sich ballen; Gerundetes, Kugeliges” etc
    Material: evidence for the unadjusted root form are seldom and partly very doubtful: O.Ind. gula-ḥ, gulī (Lex.), gulikü “ball, sphere, pearl “, gúlma- m., n. ‘swelling, lump, tumor, growth, bush” (to -ul- before Kons. s. Wackernagel O.Ind. Gk. I 30); with n-suffix O.Ind. guṇikü (Lex.) ‘swelling, lump, growth”; Gk. redupl. γαγγλίον n. ‘swelling, lump, growth, tumor, pearl “; Lat. galla f. “ a gall-apple, gall-nut, small nut-shaped protrusion on trees produced by the gall wasp “ as “ spherical outgrowth “ from *gel-nü or *gol-nü; out of it borrowed O.E. gealla, gealloc, Ger. “ nutgall, small nut-shaped protrusion on trees produced by the gall wasp “; Alb. gogëlë “ball, sphere; nutgall, small nut-shaped protrusion on trees produced by the gall wasp “ (*gel-gal-nü); older Du. kal “ core in apples and pears “; Swe. dial. kalm “ cairn, pile of stones set up as a memorial or mark of some kind “; O.C.S. žьly (žely) “ulcer”, Bulg. želka “gland, swelling, lump, growth”, Russ. žolvь, žolvú j, želvak ‘swelling, blister”, Cz. žluna, žluva ‘swelling, lump, growth”, Clr. žolá “groundnut, peanut, goober “; Pol. gleń, glon “clump, piece of bread”. A. guttural extensions: gel-ĝ-: Gk. γέλγῑς f., gen. γέλγīθος (also γέλγιος and -ιδος) “head of garlic”, pl. γέλγεις “ the cloves of garlic” (if not because of ἄγλῑς, -ῑθος “clove of garlic, head of garlic made up of separate cloves “ = *ἁ-γλῑθ- “from nodule parts, cloves clustered together “ from redupl . *γελ-γλῑθ- dissimilated; yet compare also:) O.Ind. gr̥ñja-ḥ, gr̥ñjana-ḥ “kind of garlic “, perhaps also Gk. γέλγη pl. “ antiquities “ (if perhaps “ round products, little nodules “, compare Ger. Kurzwaren); Swe. kälk “ marrow in wood” (“marrow globules “), M.Eng. kelkes “eggs of fish”, colk, colke “ apple core “. The consecutive only Gmc. (and Celt.?) word groups (IE gleĝ-, gloĝ-?) make no IE impression with their expressive intensification and nasalization, so glek- in O.N. kleggi (*klagjan-) “ haycock, haystack “, nasalized Ger. dial. (siebenbg.) heu-kling, kläng “ haycock, haystack “, klang, klinge “ gravelly shallow place in the river, sandbank”; O.E. clingan “ contract, shrink “, Eng. cling “ cling, stick; adhere “, O.N. klengiask “ auf jemand eindringen “ (“*cling “), M.H.G. klingen “ climb, ascend, go up, mount “ (with consonant-sharpening Ger. dial. klinken “ cling “), O.H.G. klinga, Ger. Klinge “narrow gorge, ravine, gulch, gully, canyon “, wherefore with gramm. variation (also IE *gle-n-k-) Eng. clough (= O.E. *clōh from *klanh-) “ steep gully, canyon, gorge “, O.H.G. Clüh-uelde; O.H.G. klunga “ ball (of thread, yarn), tangle, knot “, Dimin. klungilīn, Ger. Klũngel ds., Swe. klunga “ congested heap, mass “, klänga “ climb, ascend “, O.N. klungr (*klung-ra-, -ru-) “ thornbush, rosehip, dog rose “; with Gmc. -k- (partly IE g, partly Gmc. consonant-sharpening) O.N. klaki “frozen earth’s crust “, klakkr “ lumps, wool lumps, blot, cloudlet, small cloud “, M.H.G. klak “ spot, blot “; O.E. clyccan “ pack, grapple, grasp “ (Eng. clutch), to O.Fris. kletsie ‘spit, pike”, Swe. klyka (*klykja) “ agrafe, hook, clasp, fork “; in addition (?) that in Proto-Celt. kk weisende M.Ir. glacc, Ir. glac “hand”, glacaim “ seize; grasp”; nasalized Nor. dial. klank and klunk “clump”, M.H.G. klungeler f. “ tassel (*mass of tangled hair) “, glunkern “dangle”, Ger. Klunker “ excrement lumps, mucus lumps, slime of the eyes “ (from similar meaning of the uncleanness has perhaps derived also O.N. klǣ ki n. “disgrace, shame, humiliation “, O.E. clacn “insult”?); N.Ger. klinken “ make ruffles in clothing, pleat, crease, shrivel, shrink due to excess dryness, wrinkle up “, klinksucht “ consumption, tuberculosis “, M.H.G. klinke “ door handle “, O.H.G. klenken (*klankjan) “ lace, tie, bind”, O.E. be-clencan “hold down”, Eng. clench, clinch “(the fist) clench; enclose; clasp together; hold tightly “, M.H.G. klank “ loop, noose, sling; trick, intrigue, conspiracy “. In IE gleĝ- indicate though probably Russ. Church Slavic glez-nъ, -na, -no “ankle”, Pol. glozna ds. and lengthened grade Russ. glazokъ “ pellet, globule”, glazъ “eye”, Pol. gɫaz “ stone, cliff; little stones “, gɫaznū ‘smooth, skilled, adroit, clever” (compare Berneker 301 m. Lith., Persson Beitr. 792);
    Note: Russ. glazokъ “ pellet, globule”, glazъ “eye” are compounds of extended Root gel-1 : “to curl; round” into gleĝ- + Root okʷ- : “to see; eye”. Zupitza (KZ. 36, 236) places M.H.G. kluoc(-g) ‘smart, sly, cunning, courteous, polite, elegant” (Gmc. *klōʒa-), M.L.G. klōk (Gmc. *klōka-) ‘smart, cunning, adroit” to O.Ir. glicc (Ir. glic proves Proto-Celt. kk) “wise, judicious; discreet”; originally “as a ball so smooth and so movable”?? B. Dental extensions: gel-t-: at first (as “ intumescence, swelling; puffiness - womb - young of a human or animal while in the womb or egg”, as under by Kalb, kilburra): O.Ind. jaṭháram “belly”, jarṭú- “ womb, uterus”; at most O.Ind. guṭikü “ pellet, globule, pill, pearl, drinking cup “ (rather dial. from guḍikü ds.); Goth. kilÞei f. “womb”, in-kilÞō “pregnant”, O.E. cild n. “kid, child”, Eng. child. Maybe Alb.Gheg cullë “children”. Mikkola BB. 21, 225 connects also apparent zero grade Swe. kolla, kulla “girl; female of different animals “ (*kulÞ-) with kilÞei; about O.S. kolder “ children from a marriage “ s. Lidén IF. 19, 335 and root gol-. *gle-t- perhaps in Church Slavic glota “ commotion, uproar, turmoil, tumult, disturbance; crowd, mob, multitude “, Serb. glȍta “ family (wife and children); poor people; weed, wild plant; impurity, dirt “? Because of the uncertainty of the consecutive O.Ind. example, certain recorded word groups only in Gmc. (IE *gel-d-, *gle-d-?) are of dubious IE origin: with the meaning of animal young O.Ind. gaḍi-h, gali-ḥ “young bull” (?); in addition zero grade O.E. colt “ the young of animals “, Eng. colt “ young male horse, (abundance, fullness) “?; O.Ice. kialta, kilting “ puff, bulge, puffed crease of clothing”, Nor. dial. kult “ wood stump, mountain top, ungainly thick figure “ (Swe. also “ half-grown piglet “, compare above O.E. colt); nasalized (*glend-) O.S. klinter “ mountain top, mountain summit “, O.Ice. klettr “ rock, cliff “, M.L.G. nnd. klint “ rock, cliff “, N.Ger. klunt, klunte “clump, heap; thick Weib” = Ger. dial. klunze, N.Ger. klunter “ clots of ordure or crap, muck” (besides with Gmc. d N.Ger. klunder “bunch, heap”, Nor. klundra “ knag, knot “ under likewise); Westfäl. klǣ tern (O.S. *klütirōn) “ climb, cling “ (actually “ adhere or cling tightly “), N.Ger. klüteren, klatteren ds., nnd. klüter m. “ sticking dirt”; with ō M.Du. Du. cloet, kloet ‘stick; round grasp, sword handle “ (LateO.N. klot “ sword handle “ is Lw. from M.L.G. klōt = Ger. Kloß “ dumpling, lump “); with expressive -tt-: M.L.G. klatte “rag, cloth “ = Ger. dial. klatz “ smirch, stain, splotch “, M.Du. klatten ‘smudge”, M.H.G. bekletzen ds., Nor. Swe. dial. klatra “work sloppily “; besides with expressive dd: N.Ger. kladde “ smirch, stain, splotch; burdock” (i.e. “ the sticking “); with Dent. + s: Nor. klessa (klass) “ stick, cling, splash, bang, clap “, klessa (kleste) “ smudge, pollute “, klussa ‘smudge, pollute, lisp”; O.Ice. kless “lisping”; compare O.Ice. klasi S. 362. C. Additional labials: geleb(h)-, glēb(h)- (: glǝb(h)-) and gleb(h)- (:gl̥b(h)-) “ conglobate “. Lat. (probably actually Gaul.) galba (*gelǝbh-?), after Sueton Gaul. name for “ exceptionally rich, filthy rich, outstandingly fat “; Gaul. *galbo- “ swelling, calf of the leg, arm” is also probably assumed from galbeus, -eum “ a kind of armband, fillet (worn as an ornament, or for medical purposes) armlet, as a jewellery”, perhaps from galbulus “ the nut of the cypresstree “, which belongs to the vocalism presumably from *gelǝbh-; O.N. kalfi m. “calf”, kalfabōt “ hip area; hip joint of meat “, Eng. calf “calf”, Ger. dial. Kalb “ muscle “, O.H.G. wazzarkalb “ dropsy, abnormal collection of fluid in body tissues “ (‘swelling, tumescence through water “), wherewith (as “ intumescence - womb - fetus”, compare Eng. in calf, with calf “pregnant”) deckt O.H.G. kalb, pl. kelbir “calf”, O.E. cealf, calfur n., O.N. kalfr “calf”, Goth. kalbō f. “heifer, young cow, cow that has not had a calf “, with e-grade O.E. cilfor-lamb, O.H.G. kilburra f. “ female lamb”; Maybe Alb. kalb ‘spoil” : O.H.G. wazzarkalb “ dropsy, abnormal collection of fluid in body tissues “. Lat. globus m. “ a round body, ball, sphere, globe, heap, clump”, lengthened grade Lat. glēba f. “ a lump of earth, clod; shred, clot “ (out of it borrowed Pol. gleba “clod of earth”). Is glēbō “ of the country, rural, rustic” (“piling up clods “??) Gallic (then ĕ) or only arisen in Latin part of Gaul? O.H.G. klüftra f. “ measure of the stretched arms, fathom “ (*glēbh-); ablaut. O.N. klafi m. “ neck yoke, packsaddle”, M.L.G. klave “ neck yoke “ (*klaƀan- “the pressing together”); Maybe Alb.Gheg klafë, Tosc qafë “neck”, (*për-klafonj), përqafonj “hug, hold tight, wrap one’s arms around”; O.E. clyppan “ hug, embrace, hold tight, wrap the arms tightly around (a person or thing) “ (*klupjan with -lu- as zero grade from -le-), O.Fris. kleppa ds., Swiss chlupfel “bundle”, Eng. clasp (*claps-) “ hug, embrace; hold by the hand; fasten together “ (probably also O.Ir. glass “ lock, hinge, chateau, castle “ from *glabso-); compare with the same meaning “ to press together (with the arms) “ and likewise at best from a heavy root form glēbh-: glǝbh- to explanatory ablaut of the Balt family of Lith. gle ́biu, gle ́bti “ enclose with the arms, embrace “ (glėbỹs “ armful, armload, hugging, embrace “), glóbiu, glóbti “ hug, embrace, hold tight, support “, Ltv. glêbt, glâbt “ shield, protect “, Lith. glabóti “ preserve, guard, save, keep; demand, beg “, Ltv. glabât “ protect, preserve, guard, wait, hold on”, O.Pruss. poglabū “ cuddle “ (Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 621, 623 under 626); perhaps in addition Lith. gélbu, -ėti “help”, gil̃bti “ recover, recuperate “, O.Pruss. galbimai 1. pl. Konj. “ we help “, pogalbton “ helped, aided, assisted “ as *gelǝbh- (Trautmann 92); Slav. *globi̯ǫ, *globiti in Serb. z-glȍbīm, zglòbiti “ fold, plait, fold up, merge, decree, edict, mandate, dispose, arrange “, Pol. gɫobić old “press, merge, packetize, coalesce “ (lengthened grade Sloven. glâbim, glábiti “ pile, heap, place one on top of other”) with IE ǝ or rather о (: Lat. globus). Further with the meaning of “the clenched, round, klutzy, clumsy, awkward “ Gmc. *klapp- (intensive consonant increase) in O.N. klǫpp f. “ Knũppelbrũcke “, M.L.G. klampe ds., Swe. klapper-sten “ round stones for the pavement “, M.H.G. klapf m. “cliff top”; Gmc. expressives *klabb- in Nor. dial. klabb “ adhesive clump, of sticking lumps “, Swe. klabb(e) “clot, chunk, mountain summit in the sea, short, thick boy “ (zero grade O.N. klubba “club, mace, joint”, whence Eng. club); Gmc. *klēp- (compare Lat. glēba; Gmc. p from express. pp or at most a form with IE b) in O.N. klüp-eygr “popeyed, wide-eyed, with bulging staring eyes “, klüpr an abusive word, insult (perhaps “clot, chunk”) u likewise; about IE qlēp- see there; zero grade *kulƀ- in O.H.G. kolbo “ stump, club, mace, joint (as weapon), cudgel, club”, O.N. kolfr “ plant nodules, arrow “, kylfi, kylfa “club, mace, joint under likewise”; besides with Gmc. -p- N.Ger. kulp-ōge “ popeyed, wide-eyed, with bulging staring eyes “, mrhein. Kũlp “ Schlagholz am Dreschflegel “, Swe. dial. kulp “thick person”; M.Eng. cũlpe, nEng. kelp “ salsola (salt herb) “. Nasalized glembh- (perhaps partly through hybridization from *glebh- and *glem-): Maybe Alb. glemb, gjemb “thorn, sticky thorn, clinging thorn, prickly plant”. M.H.G. klamben “ join tightly “, O.N. klembra “ climb, ascend “, O.Ice. klǫmbr “ agrafe, hook, clasp “, M.H.G. klemberen “ cramp, clamp, staple, clip “, M.H.G. Ger. Klammer; Eng. clamber “ climb, ascend “, actually “ clip something to, cramp, clamp “, as also ablaut. O.H.G. klimban “ clamber, climb, ascend “, O.E. climban, M.H.G. klimben, klimmen “ clamber, climb, ascend; pinch, tweak, nip, pack, grapple, grip, seize “; O.N. klumba “club, mace, joint”, klumbu-fōtr “ clubfoot, misshapen deformed foot “; with Gmc. p: O.S. klimper “clump, dumpling, lump “, O.Ice. kleppr “clump, rocky hill “, M.H.G. klimpfen “ to press together tightly “; O.H.G. klampfer “ agrafe, hook, clasp “, M.L.G. klampe f. “hook, gangplank, footbridge”, nnd. klamp, klampe “clump, clot, chunk” (Ger. Klampe “ agrafe, clasp, hook, clot, chunk” is N.Ger. Lw., genuine Ger. Klampfe); O.E. clympe “clump”, N.Ger. klumpe “clump” (Ger. Klumpe(n) is N.Ger. Lw.); Pol. gɫąb, Cz. hloub “ stalk, stem of a plant “. glem-: Lat. glomus, -eris n. “ a clew, ball made by winding, lump dumpling, (as dish, food); ball, tangle, knot “ (*glemos), glomerüre “clench, clasp together “; O.Ir. glomar “bridle, rein, toggle” (compare S. 360 M.H.G. klammer); O.E. climman “ climb, ascend “, M.L.G. klimmeren ds., M.H.G. klimmen (partly with mm from mb), also “make narrow, limit, restrict” (Ger. beklommen), O.E. clam(m) “band, strap, handle, grasp, manacle”, O.H.G. klamma “ restriction, constriction, clamp, glen, mountain valley, gulch, canyon “, Ger. Klamm, Kaus. O.H.G. Ger. klemmen, O.Fris. klemma, O.E. beclemman “clamp”, M.H.G. klam “narrow, dense”, Ger. (nd.) klamm “ steif (krampfig) vor Kälte “, zero grade Nor. dial. klumra “ work with stiff and frostbitten hands “; Maybe Alb. (*k)lemcë “womb, uterus (of animals)” : Goth. kilÞei f. “womb”, in-kilÞō “pregnant” [common Alb. gl- > l- phonetic mutation]. with erweit. *klam-d-: O.N. klanda, klandra “ disparage, anger, denigrate, annoy, try to steal”; Lith. glomó-ju, -ti “ hug, embrace, hold tight “; with -ĝ- extended Lith. glemžiù , glem̃žti “ snatch, snatch up; crumple “, Ltv. glemzt “ eat slowly, babble, chatter nonsense “; further glēm-, glǝm- with older meaning-development to “ stick together, mucilaginous mass “: Gk. γλάμων “blear eyed, bleareyed “, etc. (Lat. glamae Lw.); Alb. nglomë, ngjomë “humid, wet, fresh, young” (*glēmo-); O.N. klüm “ dirty speech “, Eng. clammy “ humid and sticky, clingy, cool and damp “, E.Pr. klamm “ humid and sticky, wet”; Lith. glẽmės, gle ̃mes, gle ̃mos f. pl. “ tough slime “, Ltv. glęmas, glemi ‘slime, mucus”, glùmt “ become slimy, smooth “, glums “ smooth “ (also glemzt “ chat, prate thoughtlessly “, glemža “ babbler “, compare z. meaning Ltv. gleîsts “ babbler “: glîst “ slimy become”); about Lith. gléimės see under S. 364. Maybe Alb. (*g)lemzë “hiccup, involuntary spasms “ : Lith. glemža “babbler” [common Alb. gl- > l- phonetic mutation] D. g(e)l-eu-, partly with further consonantal derivative: O.Ind. glüu-ḥ f. “ globular object, ball, clenched mass “, Pers. gulūle “ball”; Gk. γίγ-γλυ-μος m. “a hinge joint: a joint in a coat of mail, bone joint, hinge “; O.Ir. glō-ṡnáthe, gláo-ṡnáthe “ a linen thread, string, line, plumb-line, a measure, standard “ (literally “ bale cord “); O.N. klē m. (*klew-an-) “ Webstein “, O.E. clyne n. “ metal lumps “ (*klu-n-), Swe. kluns m. “clump”, Ice. klunni “ klutzy, clumsy person”; O.H.G. kliuwa, kliwa “ball, tangle, knot “, kliuwi, kliwi “ ball, tangle, knot “ (Dimin. M.H.G. kliuwelīn, dissimilated Ger. Knäuel “ball, tangle, knot”), O.E. clíewen “ thread knot “ (Eng. clew); zero grade M.L.G. klǖwen, Du. kluwen “ ball, tangle, knot “; in addition with lengthened grade and meaning-development “ the gripping: claw “ the family of Gmc. *klēwü : O.H.G. klüwa “ claw, talon, nail “, M.H.G. klüwe, M.L.G. klü “ claw, talon, nail, hoof, O.Fris. klē, wherefore with ablaut das verb *klawjan (has changed *klawan) “ scratch, scrape, itch with the nails “, O.H.G. klauuenti “ to itch or long for a thing, for blows, stripes, for pleasure, to be wanton “, M.H.G. klöuwen ‘scratch, scrape”, O.E. clawan = O.N. klü “rub, scratch, scrape” (O.N. klǣ ja “itch” neologism after the 3. sg. klǣ r = *klawið), wherefore *klawiÞan- m. in O.N. klüði m. “itchiness, itching, scratching “, O.E. clæweða ds., O.H.G. glouuida (lies clouuida) ‘scabies”; from the verb derives the abbreviation from O.E. clawu f. “ claw, nail, hoof” (Eng. claw) and clēa f. (Eng. dial. clea) ds. (the last = *klau from clawu), as well as O.H.G. klōa “ claw, nail “; O.H.G. cluwi “pliers, tongs”; O.Ice. klō f. “ claw, nail, hook “; O.Ice. klunna “ attach tightly “, compare O.E. clyne, Swe. kluns “clump”, O.E. clynian “ swathe, wrap up “; probably O.Ir. glūn “knee” = Alb. glu-ri (Gheg), gju-ri (Tosc) “knee” (with IE *ĝenu- “knee” barely as dissimilation form compatible to *ĝnū-n- because of the Guttural difference); presumably Lith. gliaũmas “ smooth diminution of the whetstone “, gliaumùs “ smooth, slippery “, Ltv. glaũms, glums “ slimy”, if “ slimy = sticking together, balling, massingtogether “, compare Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 622; Maybe Alb. (*(g)laum-) lëmonj “to smooth” [common Alb. gl- > l- phonetic mutation] compare with -s- Nor. klyse (*klūsion-) “ slimy clump”, that from M.L.G. klūs “mass”, nnd. “ ball, tangle, knot, confusion, mass”, N.Ger. klū̆ ster “ bundle, grape, type of fruit which grows in clusters on a vine “, O.E. clūster, clȳster n. ds. are not to be distinguished; compare from a root form *gle-s- O.N. klasi “lump of berries or fruit, mass”. extension with -t-: Gk. γλουτός (τα γλουτά) “buttock “, τὰ γλούτια “ medullary tubercles near the pineal gland of the brain “; Sloven. glûta, glúta “growth, swelling natured tumefaction, tree gnarl “ (Berneker 309); changing through ablaut O.E. clūd m. “a mass of rock, hill”, Eng. cloud “cloud” (“cloud bundle “), compare with gemination (*kludda-) O.E. clodd (Eng. clod) “ clod, lump of earth “. extension with -d-: M.L.G. klōt m. “clump; testicle”, M.H.G. klōz, Ger. Kloß, O.E. cléot, Eng. cleat “clump, wedge”; changing through ablaut M.L.G. klūt, klūte “ clod, lump of earth “, E.Fris. klūt “clump, piece, fragment” (in further development of latter meaning also :) O.E. clūt m., Eng. clout “rag; metal sheet “, LateO.N. klūtr “rag, clump”; with expressive gemination (*klutta-) O.E. clott (Eng. clot) “clump” = M.H.G. kloz, Ger. Klotz. Perhaps here Lith. glaudžiù , glaũsti, Ltv. glaũst “ mache etwas eng anschmiegen “, glaudùs “ anschmiegend, dicht anliegend “, glúdoju “ liege angeschmiegt da “ (compare Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 622 f.); Russ. glúda “clump, dumpling, lump “. Maybe Alb. glasë “droppings” extension with -bh-: sylt. Fris. klēpi “kiss”, Russ. glūba “clump, Block”, glūba zemli “clod of earth” (Berneker 310; compare to -b- under *gle-b-), perhaps Lith. glaũbti “ squeeze, caress the brost “, glaubstūti “caress”. E. glei-, partly with further, consonantal derivative (esp. glei-t-, -d-, glei-bh-; glei-m-) “glue, put grease on, oil, smear”, but probably originally derived from gel- “clench, clasp together “; after Specht Decl. 144 basic meaning “gleaming” (to ĝel-, gel-?); nominal: gli-i̯o-, -no-, -tu-; gloi-u̯o-. Gk. γλία f. “ glue “ (sl. *glьjь, see under), γλίνη ds. (: sl. glěnъ, glina, O.H.G. klenan, O.Ir. glenim see under), γλοιός “ any glutinous substance, gluten, gum, generally, oily sediment in baths “, γλοιός “ humid and sticky, wet” (*γλοιFός: Ltv. glievs, Slav. *glěvъ, see under), γλιττόν γλοιόν Hes. (*γλιτF-ός: Lith. glitùs etc.), γλίχομαι “cling to, strive after, long for “, γλίσχρος “ glutinous, sticky, clammy, sticking close, importunate, penurious, niggardly, of things, mean, shabby, of buildings, of painting, carefully, with elaborate detail”, (presumably with -ρο- from a *γλίσχω from *γλίχ-σκω); Lat. glūs, -tis, glūten, -inis n. “ sticky oil; slime, gluten”, glūtinō “ glue together” (ū from oi, compare that of the changing by ablaut:) glis, -tis “ fat dormouse “, glittūs ‘soft, delicate, tender, yielding “ (basic form *gleitos with intensive tt); maybe nasalized Alb. (*nglit) ngjit “to stick to, climb, cling” : Lith. gliejù, gliẽti ‘smear”, refl. gliẽtis “ stick, glue, remain “, Alb. glisht “finger (to grasp, cling)”. O.Ir. glenim (*gli-nü-mi), Welsh glynaf “ to cleave or stick to a thing “; in addition further O.Ir. fordíuclainn “ gobbles, engulfs, devours “, after Pedersen KG. II 540 from for-dí-uksglen- to *glenaid (from *gl̥-nü-ti); also Bret. geot “grass” from *gel-tü (Marstrander Pré s . nasal. 30 f.); O.E. clǣ g (Eng. clay), M.L.G. klei “ loam, clay “, Dan. klæg “ glutinous, thick, loamy slime, mud” (Gmc. *klajja-; in addition N.Ger. kleggen “ climb, ascend “); changing through ablaut Nor. dial. kli ‘slime, mud, loam, clay “ (the derivative M.L.G. klick “ earth loam “ probably after slick “ slick, film of oil floating on top of water, silt, earth loam “?), O.H.G. klenan “ stick, glue, smudge “ (= Ir. glenim, see above, compare also nominal γλίνη etc.; is klenan as st. V. in the converted e-row, hence also O.N. klunna “ attach tightly”?); zero grade O.N. klina ‘smear” (*klīnian, schw. V.), with oi Nor. kleina ds.; Lith. gliejù, gliẽti ‘smear”, refl. gliẽtis “ stick, glue, remain “; sl. *glьjь in Russ. glej “clay, loam “, Pol. glej “ muddy, sludgy ground “ (: Gk. γλία; extended Russ. dial. glëkъ “mucus, lymph, serum, clear fluid which separates from the blood during coagulation “ from *glь-kъ); Maybe Alb. glak, gjak “blood” gleibh- (Slav. equivalents see under); an deducible also from IE *glei-p-. O.H.G. klëbēn “ stick, glue, adhere, be stuck, be stuck up “, O.S. kliƀōn, O.E. clifian, cleofian “ stick, glue, attached, be linked “, O.E. clibbor “ sticking, adhesive “, zero grade O.H.G. klīban “ adhere, stick, glue , cling “, O.S. biklīƀan ds., O.E. clīfan ‘stick, adhere, cling “, O.N. klīfa “climb, ascend (pin, clinch, attach oneself)”, M.Du. clīven ds.; O.H.G. klība, O.S. klīva, O.E. clīfe “burdock”; with -oi- O.H.G. kleiben “clamp, fasten, stick, fix (make stick, glue)”, Ger. kleiben “ stick, glue, paste, cause to adhere “; O.E. clǣ fre (*klaiƀriōn-), M.L.G. klüver, klēver “ clover, plant having leaves with three leaflets “; here also O.N. kleif f., klif n. “ steep hill “, O.E. clif n., M.L.G. klif “ cliff “, O.H.G. klep (-b-) “ forelands, promontory “, M.Du., M.L.G. klippe f. “ crag, cliff “ (out of it Ger. Klippe as “ smooth rock “, as O.Ir. slīab “mountain” to root *sleib- “glide, slide”); to what extent occurred besides *gle-m-bh also a nasalized form from *glei-bh- in O.E. O.H.G. klimban “ clamber, climb, ascend “, is unclear; O.C.S. u-glьbl”ǫ “ get stuck “ Aor. uglъbǫ “ fixed “, uglebъ (e = ь) “fix or plant in “, changing through ablaut (*oi) R.C.S. uglěbl”evati “ fasten, implant, drive in, affix “, and (*ei) Serb. glîb “ordure” (Berneker 310). glei-d- in M.Ir. glōed “ glue “, O.E. clüte f. “burdock”, clīte f. “ coltsfoot, herb (Tussilago Farfara), whose leaves and root are employed in medicine to treat coughs “, Eng. dial. clote, clite, cleat “burdock”, clite “ glue, slime, mud “ (: Ltv. glī̀ dê t “ become slimy “, compare Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 626, 627). with m-formants: O.E. clüm “ klehriger Stoff, loam, clay “, wherefore O.N. Kleima “ name of a giantess (*clod, heap?) “ O.E. clǣ man “ smear, daub, tallow, lubricate “, O.H.G. chleimen “ glue, attach with glue, paste, size “; Ltv. gliemezis, gliems, glieme “ snail, mussel “; Lith. gléimės “mucus”, glimùs “ mucilaginous, of the sticky substance from plants; mucinous, slimy “; Ltv. glaĩma “ joke, flattery, insincere compliments, excessive praise “, glaĩmuôt “ joke, flatter, caress “ (compare Nor. dial. kleima “ smear, daub, tallow, lubricate : caress “); Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 621, 628 f.; Trautmann 92; about Lith. gle ̃mės see above S. 361; sl. *glěmyždžь in Cz. hlemūžd” ‘snail”. with n-forms (see above γλίνη etc.) R.C.S. glěnъ “mucus, tough dampness “, glina “clay”; glei-t- in O.E. ætclīÞan “ stick, adhere “, zero grade cliða, clioða m. “ plaster, wound dressing “, O.E. cliðe “burdock” (“the sticking”), O.H.G. kledda, kletta, Dutch klis, klit “burdock”, Ger. klettern; also probably M.H.G. kleit, Ger. Kleid, O.E. clüð ds.; M.H.G. klīster “ paste, glue, dough “, Mod.Ice. klīstra “ paste, cause to adhere, stick “ (as *gleit-tro- here or with Gmc. forms -stra- from the root form *klī-, IE glei-); Nor. kleisa “ stick, glue; (stick, glue with the tongue =) lisping or impure, unclean talk”, O.N. kleiss ī müle “ stammering, stuttering, spluttering “. Lith. glitùs “ smooth, humid and sticky “, glyte ̃ “ nasal mucus, pl. isinglass, form of gelatin obtained from fish products and used in the production of glue and jellies, fish glue “, Ltv. glîts “ smooth, neat nice, pretty; lovely, kind “; Ltv. glīstu, glīdu, glîst “ be and become slimy “, glīdēt “ become slimy “, gleîsts “ babbler “; s. Mũhlenbach-Endzelin I 624, 627; compare above S. 363 Gk. γλιττόν; perhaps in Russ. (etc.) glistъ, glistá “ worm, earthworm, tapeworm “ (or to Ger. gleiten; Berneker 304); Maybe Alb. glisht, glishta pl. “(smooth) finger, clinging finger “ : Russ. (etc.) glistъ, glistá “ worm” with u̯-formants: Gmc. *klaiwa-, O.H.G. klēo-, klē “ clover, plant having leaves with three leaflets “ (after the sticky juice, sap the bloom, blossom?) and *klīwōn-, M.L.G. klīe, O.H.G. klīwa, klīa, Ger. Kleie f. (if with IE ī, so ablaut equally with Ltv. glīwe “mucus”). Lith. gleí vės f. pl. “mucus”, Ltv. glēvs “tenacious as mucus, slack” (if with ē from IE *ē[i]?; about Lith. gle ̃mės see above S. 361 under glem-), Ltv. glievs ‘slack” (= γλοιός), glīve “ mucus, green mucus on to the water “ (: O.H.G. klīwa, see above); sl. *glěvъ (: Ltv. gli vs, γλοιός) in Russ. dial. glevъ m., glevá f. “ mucus of fish “, Pol. gléwieć (besides gliwieć ) ‘spoil (of cheese”), changing through ablaut Clr. klūva “ Beefsteak fungus, Oak-tongue (a type of mushroom, species of mushroom “), Serb. gljiva “ type of mushroom, fungus “;
    References: WP. I 612 ff., WH. I 577 f., 580, 606 f., 608 f., 611 f., 617, 867 f., Trautmann 92.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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  • gel — gèl s.m.inv. 1. TS chim. fase solida o semisolida di un colloide, formatasi per raffreddamento o per aggiunta di sostanze gelificanti 2a. CO sostanza gelatinosa impiegata nella fabbricazione di medicinali o cosmetici: un dopobarba in gel; anche… …   Dizionario italiano

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  • gel — sustantivo masculino 1. (no contable) Jabón líquido usado para el aseo: Uso un gel de baño con olor a jazmín. 2. Área: química Mezcla de un líquido y una materia coloidal, muy utilizada en farmacia y cosmética: Muchos medicamentos se presentan… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • gel — [1] ► NOUN 1) a jelly like substance containing a cosmetic, medicinal, or other preparation. 2) Chemistry a semi solid colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid. ► VERB (gelled, gelling) 1) Chemistry form into a gel. 2) …   English terms dictionary

  • gel — /dʒɛl/ s.m. [da gel(atina )], invar. 1. (chim.) [fase semisolida di un sistema colloidale] ▶◀ gelo. 2. [sostanza colloidale usata per dare forma alla capigliatura e fissare la piega] ▶◀ gelatina, gommina. ‖ brillantina. ⇑ fissativo, fissatore …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • gel — (n.) 1899, as a chemical term, short for GELATIN (Cf. gelatin) and perhaps influenced by jell. The invention of this word is credited to Scottish chemist Thomas Graham (1805 1869). Hair styling sense is from 1958. The verb meaning to become a gel …   Etymology dictionary


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